Substantive Education

Ancient History Homework Page

We will be spending the remainder of the year focused on the Romans.  You should be reading about them in your history book, and have begun to read Caesar Augustus’s world.  There are many other books that would make a great addition to your reading that are on the supplemental reading list.

We are going to be working on the Greeks in December and I will be posting several summaries of what we do in class here. Continue your reading in Story of the World and History of the Worlds respectively. You should also begin reading Famous Men of Greece. You will notice that some of the stories covered in this book are mythical. Greek history and myth merges at several points, and although we wouldn’t consider their myths part of their history, the Greeks would have. They accepted the stories of the gods as part of their history and you cannot understand them, without understanding the god’s and ways of thinking that shaped them….besides they are fun stories.

Homework due Nov. 11. We will be having a test on Ancient Egypt. Know the information on the Study guide.

HOmework Due October 31.

Read Chapter 8 in Pharoh’s of Ancient Egypt…this should finish the book.

Make sure that you are caught up on all of your reading. We will be making timelines in class to put together what we have been talking about and what you have been reading. We will also be reviewing the Egypt information for a test on Egypt.

Homework Due for October 24th

Read Chapter 7 in Pharoh’s of Ancient Egypt

The story of the World Chapters 12 and 13

History of the World Chapters 20 and 21

Homework Due for October 17th

Read Chapter 6 in Pharoh’s of Ancient Egypt

The Story of the World Chapters 10 and 11

History of the World Chapters 18 and 19.

Homework for Oct. 10

Pharoh’s of Ancient Egypt Read Chapter 5

The Story of the World Chapters 8 and 9

History of the world 15-17

Here are the notes from the overhead used on Friday. The illustrations are not transferring. If I have time I will post them later.

Mesopotamia’s wealth and resources, along with few natural defenses, made repeated invasions and internal conflicts inevitable.

The balance of power repeatedly shifted from North to South.

First the Sumerians formed in the South.

For a brief period they were eclipsed by the Akkadians from the North

The Sumerians regain local control.

The Babylonians come to control the South.

The Assyrians in the North gain control over the entire region.

Babylon again regains control.

While the struggle continued between Babylon and Assyria outside kingdoms began to develop and gain power.

The Sumerians regain local control.

The Babylonians come to control the South.

The Assyrians in the North gain control over the entire region.

Babylon again regains control.

While the struggle continued between Babylon and Assyria outside kingdoms began to develop and gain power.

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Kingdoms growing outside of Mesopotamia

Elam, on the plain between the Tigris river and the Zagros Mountains.

The Hittite Kingdom was developing in Anatolia.

The Persian empire was developing east of Elam.

Beginning in the 6th Century B.C. the Persians forged an empire that included Mesopotamia and the entire Near East.

In the early dynasty’s of Egypt there were three kingdoms. Our information about these kingdoms lies somewhere between fact and legend. The first kingdom was in Lower Egypt and was ruled by the Bee King, he wore a Red Crown.

The Second Kingdom was in Middle Egypt and was ruled by the Reed King, his sign was papyrus and he wore a white crown.

The Third Kingdom was ruled by the Hawk King. In the third kingdom there arose a king known as the Scorpion King (or Menes) and he conquered first the second then the third kingdoms uniting all of Egypt.

Menes recognized the importance of the separate kingdoms to his people, so he wore a crown that was red and white. His palace had 2 gates one in the south and one in the north. He was called the Lord of the Two Lands or King of Upper and Lower Egypt.

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In order to provide unity and stability the idea arose that Menes was part God. The four first kings were known as the four demigods. This gave people comfort and made them feel chosen that the gods had sent one of their own to earth to rule in Egypt.

The people would not name Menses by name so they called him One who lives in the great house. This comes from the Egyptian word Per O or Great House. Eventually becoming Pharaoh.

It is the early kings who built the pyramids.

The “Good God’ King was Cheops or Khufu. He built the great pyramid and ruled from Memphis. His people loved him and during the off season (the floods) they worked on his pyramid. He toured Egypt yearly to check irrigation etc. and visit his burial site. It was important to the people to provide for the pharaohs death because only if he was still around would they have eternal life as there eternal life was dependent on serving him.

Earlier and later tombs and the tombs of nobles were Mastaban…or Table top looking tombs. Much later tombs were dug into the mountains and put in caves.

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The tomb of Niankhkhnum and Khnumhotep is one of the most beautiful pieces of artwork from the Old Kingdom

This is the tomb of Mereruka who died around 2323 BC. He was buried in a type of tomb known as a Masataba – a name that comes from the fact that it looks like a bench and ‘Mastaba’ means ‘bench’ in Arabic. This was a traditional style of tomb for the early ancient Egyptians before they started to experiment with building pyramids.

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The very first pyramid in Egypt was built for King Zoser (Djoser) around 2650 BC. It is known as a Step-Pyramid as it does not have a true pyramid shape but rises to the top in five giant steps (see the people to the left of the pyramid to give you an idea of how large it is).

The step pyramid is basically five Mastabas – one on top of the other, with each one getting smaller as you near the top. And this is exactly how the whole idea for a pyramid came about in the first place. Look closely at Zoser’s Step-Pyramid. Can you see the original Mastaba that was built for the king in the lower-right section of the pyramid? The king’s architects first extended this original Mastaba, and then placed another on top – and then another.

By building a monument shaped like a pyramid the Egyptians would have believed that they were re-creating the shape of the first land that emerged from the sea at the beginning of time. This would ensure the king’s journey to the next world and a prosperous nation for everybody else.

The first attempt to build a smooth sided pyramid – which has withstood the test of time – was by King Sneferu (2613-2589 BC) at Dahshur, just to the south of the main pyramids at Giza. It is known as the Bent-Pyramid due to the way the architects changed the angles of the sides halfway through.

No one really knows the reason for this but one suggestion is that a nearby pyramid at Meidum, which was also being built with smooth sides, collapsed while the Bent-Pyramid was being built. This prompted the architects to realise their mistake and change the angle of the sides. Had the original angle been completed it would have surely collapsed at some point.

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Just next to the Bent-Pyramid at Dahshur is the Red-Pyramid built by the same king – King Sneferu. Most people think he built this pyramid after the failures of the Bent-Pyramid. It is the first true pyramid with smooth sides. It is also the second largest pyramid ever built in Egypt.

To the north of Dahshur is the Giza Plateau and here the three famous pyramids of Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure were built from 2589 to 2503 BC. The Pyramid of Khufu, also known as Cheops, is the largest of them all and is known as the Great-Pyramid – the only wonder of the ancient world still standing.

In this photograph you see the pyramid of Khafre, the second largest at Giza – still with a tiny portion of the smooth limestone capping in place at the top (this would have once covered all the sides). At Giza you see that the pyramid was only part of a whole complex of structures which worked together. In Khafre’s case there is a unique addition – a Sphinx. Partly carved out of a natural bit of rock, this magical creature watched over Khafre’s Valley Temple.

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Each pyramid at Giza was connected to the Nile River by a canal. This canal ended at the King’s Valley Temple. It was in this temple that the major ceremonies at the King’s funeral took place, and it was here that prayers would be said for the dead king long after his death. This Valley Temple of Khafre is one of the world’s first examples of a building constructed with massive blocks of stone. Yet, even this early, the builders of Egypt proved themselves to be expert craftsmen and built a structure where the stones still join perfectly. In the shallow depressions on the floor would have stood statues of Khafre.

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Amenhotep was the architect and vizier for Cheops. His son Chephren built a pyramid and the sphinx.

A series of ineffective rulers brought about the Dark Ages where anarchy reigned. This was brought about by the nobles becoming more and more independent of the Pharaoh and setting up their own individual kingdoms

A Thebean, Amenemhet, rose up and unified the country establishing the 12th dynasty. He ruled well, as did his ancestors who were known as the good shepherd pharaohs.

Amenemhet was a vizier and military commander who came to power by a coup. He was not a royal. He stabalized the country and silenced opponents in the North. He started the state-cult of Amon and added that to his name.

They ruled until the Hyksos invaded. For 150 years the Egyptians were occupied.

Hyksos invaders had Canaanite names and worshipped gods like Baal. They had superior military inventions like the horse drawn chariot. While they controlled upper Egypt Thebian Kings continued to have some power in lower Egypt.

Although they brought stability, native Egyptians viewed these Hyksos rulers as ‘invaders.’

Again from Thebes arose another leader

Kamose and his brother Ahmose rose up an army and drove the Hyksos out of Egypt. Kamose was killed in battle but his brother lived and claimed the throne.

Ahmose begins the 18th dynasty the most brilliant in Egyptian history.

haroh’s of Ancient Egypt. Read Chapter 4

The Story of the World, Younger kids. Read Chapters 6 and 7

History of the Ancient world, older kids. Read Chapter 12-14

Homework Due Sept 26th

Pharoh’s of Ancient Egypt, Read Chapter 3

The Story of the World, Younger kids, read Chapters 4 and 5

History of the Ancient World, older kids, read chapters 9-11.

Homework that is due Sept. 19.

Pharoh’s of Ancient Egypt, Read Chapter 2

The Story of the World (book for younger students) Read Chapters 2 and 3

History of the Ancient World (book for older students) Read chapters 5-8

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